The right to compensation for Palestinian refugees for damages against aggressor state-Dr.Nabil DEEB

فلسطينيو العراق3

عدد القراء 2135

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The right to compensation for Palestinian refugees for damages under general international law against any aggressor state or against    members of the aggressor State - Dr. Nabil DEEB

Now it is the time for the United Nations, UNO , the interests of the Palestinian refugees in all countries of the world, a conclusion which is inevitable, not only the ability but also to defend against the claim and legal defense in court and the international the duty: this is the right guard the UN, WHO, UNHCR, the United Nations, the interests of the Palestinian refugees, as legal guardian of the interests of the Palestinian refugees for the principles and guidelines of the right to damages under general international law :

The interpretation of the so-called "principles of international law or in equity," the term in section 11 of the UN Security Council Resolution 194 (III), 11 in December 1948 adopted and applied in many cases of Palestinian refugees to claim for damages under general international law based on :

Compensation for the property of those choosing not to return to their homes and are responsible for any loss or damage to property which is subject to the principles of international law or in equity for the Palestinian diaspora .

This analysis is an international global legal and necessary, as are some of the resolutions of the General Assembly is not binding on itself. While most of the resolutions of the General Assembly recommendations only in accordance with Article 10 of the Charter of the United Nations, under certain conditions, to convince, to and in accordance with international law exists or if repeated more than once : "It is the effect of such responsibility by the acceleration have custom generating process, or legal principles of estoppel" .

Note that the discussion on international law the responsibility of the state - that is a prerequisite for compensation under general international law - and on the basis of the criteria for determining compensation, including the European courts and courts of the Inter-American Convention on Human Rights and other compensation contexts, non-commercial .

The purpose of this article, a methodology is not "use" of these principles and guidelines for the special case of the Palestinian refugees, including Palestinians in Iraq and the Gaza Strip .

We also note that most of the international law relating to compensation from sources such as in accordance with international law decisions of international courts of Iran - the United States Court of Claims, Compensation Committee of the UN and the previous settlement, in contrast to the situation of Palestinian refugees in several aspects .

Negotiation in most cases, usually with transnational corporations and as an investment property, commercial contracts, such as oil concessions, or in violation of the agreements, bilateral trade between the two countries instead of a broad human rights, humanitarian, and there were foreign Citizens of the existing states, as opposed to residential buildings and commercial buildings of families and communities obsessed with such legal status, but it is uncertain what is the right thing for the Palestinians in 1948. But the general law of compensation by a number of criteria that can be compensated as a framework for a negotiated solution for Palestine Refugees in the cases of the Palestinian cause to be used. Note that there are international laws that apply to legally recognized and globally around the world in all its laws and courts of the States, including the International Criminal Court .

The basic principle of state responsibility for violations of other countries and people, and the concept of errors and exceptions and limitations imposed on the responsibility of the state :

Injured third-country nationals and stateless persons (for example, Palestinians in the diaspora around the world) .

Traditionally, perhaps the application of international law only to the relationship between the countries in the world .

So if the state has damage to any person including a foreigner (whether a natural person or a company), this is a violation of the foreign country of any nationality of the alien (or where they are combined) causes .

Injury, the policy of the National Human Rights Commission believes personal safety, property or other interests. If the state, for example. Confiscation of property of foreign investors in the country to which the investors of the citizens of this. The State has the option of legal claims and practice of international human rights organizations, foreign diplomacy .

"Double" A State may take the form of negotiation, mediation and arbitration (including the Commission of Mediation Committee), arbitration, the approval of both the defendant State, or, under certain circumstances .

As for what in the case of stateless persons as refugees or members of a nation that does not have their own state? .

In the general case they are left without the protection of such diplomacy .

This is one reason that the law is best to avoid statelessness.) In some cases, such as occur, for example, the status of work on behalf of permanent residents or other non-own citizens who share a connection with them regional .

In the case of refugees (stateless or not) :

That "the time of the United Nations, and as guardian of the interests of the refugees, the conclusion is inevitable, and to bring not only the ability of an international claim against a refugee does not have a generation of country for refugees, but also the duty .

This representation Guard, which is the UN, WHO, UNHCR, the United Nations and its international organizations Represented and defend the interests of refugees, currently the United Nations and as guardian of the interests of the scattered Palestinian refugees and  for the duties of human rights, and all states to protect the rights of all persons, whether citizens or stateless persons. (but on the actual use of international mechanisms of redress, which limits according to international human rights standards in its application and scope of the regional courts of human rights .

Errors and defenses :

a related question of whether international law requires to be made that the establishment of the State responsible, and thus compensate for the injury .

In other words, is all "illegal" international behavior worthy blame? According to a leading lawyer Ian Brownlie and international courts usually follow the objective theory of liability, provided they can produce agency and causality ("attribution"), there was a breach of international law by the result alone. Although the representatives of the state also has authority (dolo penalty) has acted, or, for that matter, the damage in the absence of intention (dolo penalty) or the presence of good faith, and that the state is responsible for the Perhaps all work submitted, the compliance with the failure .

Of course you can be the motive and intent, where the State claims that it is justified, its legitimacy by excluding legitimate circumstance .

Draft rules of the International Law Commission, the procedures for producing the following possible defenses :

Anti consent (which may be legitimate if the country concerned is an internationally wrongful act committed), and increased violence and acts of self-defense, necessity, and necessity. Perhaps the two most important defense systems .

International law is the only way to protect important state interest in an immediate and serious crime is not serious and the great interest of the state towards a commitment to them. Even if these conditions are met does not exclude legitimate, if the establishment of an international obligation, which includes the base commander of the rules of general international law or obligation under the contract, the case of the necessity defense, or has contributed to the state of a case of necessity affected .

Form and the criteria for compensation under the rules of international law :

Regional Court of Human Rights :

European courts and the Inter-American human rights for compensation for victims of the individuals affected by human rights violations on a regular basis.

That the acquisition of property for the public interest without compensation may be justified only in exceptional cases. Found a fair balance between the needs of the general interest of society and the protection of fundamental rights of individuals. Should not impose a disproportionate burden, not the individual .

Cases for the victims to compensation in cases of wars between nations :

Early in the late eighteenth century made the rights of customary international law of compensation to persons in the war against the aggressor an aggressor state and its rulers .

The international bodies in order to receive the award of compensation to the survivors of the civil population during the Second World War and destroyed their property if they are not German nationals or German nationality .

The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia provides that, in the judgment of conviction, the Criminal Chamber of the International Criminal Court to hold a special meeting to determine a valid return of property, and that the judgments of the International Criminal Court to the culpability of the convicted aggressor to be present shall be final and binding with respect to claims for compensation for victims in other national courts or other models .

Sources of international law and international law and international scientific explanation : -

All sources of international law and international law and the interpretation of the international scientific world in several languages are with me .

 

Sincerely Yours
Dr. Nabil Abdul Kadir DEEB
    Medical Researcher, academic medical specialist in Germany
            Palestinians from Iraq  , as a resident in Bonn, Germany
Doctor - Physician – Doctor
PMI Medical Association e.V.
Palestine Medico International Medical Society - (PMI)  e.V.
Department of Medical Research
Département de la recherche médicale
P.O. Box 20 10 53
53 140 Bonn - Bad Godesberg / GERMANY
e.mail: doctor.nabil.deeb.pmi.germany@googlemail.com
or

e.mail: doctor.nabilabdulkadirdeeb@googlemail.com

7/4/2012

 

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  • to the nabildeeb-Syndrome Dr. Nabil AbdulKadir DEEB . The Lancet | Journals The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 23 July 2014 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61044-8Cite or Link Using DOI Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. An open letter for the people in Gaza Paola Manduca aEmail Address, Iain Chalmers b, Derek Summerfield c, Mads Gilbert d, Swee Ang e, on behalf of 24 signatories We are doctors and scientists, who spend our lives developing means to care and protect health and lives. We are also informed people; we teach the ethics of our professions, together with the knowledge and practice of it. We all have worked in and known the situation of Gaza for years. On the basis of our ethics and practice, we are denouncing what we witness in the aggression of Gaza by Israel. We ask our colleagues, old and young professionals, to denounce this Israeli aggression. We challenge the perversity of a propaganda that justifies the creation of an emergency to masquerade a massacre, a so-called “defensive aggression”. In reality it is a ruthless assault of unlimited duration, extent, and intensity. We wish to report the facts as we see them and their implications on the lives of the people. We are appalled by the military onslaught on civilians in Gaza under the guise of punishing terrorists. This is the third large scale military assault on Gaza since 2008. Each time the death toll is borne mainly by innocent people in Gaza, especially women and children under the unacceptable pretext of Israel eradicating political parties and resistance to the occupation and siege they impose. This action also terrifies those who are not directly hit, and wounds the soul, mind, and resilience of the young generation. Our condemnation and disgust are further compounded by the denial and prohibition for Gaza to receive external help and supplies to alleviate the dire circumstances. The blockade on Gaza has tightened further since last year and this has worsened the toll on Gaza's population. In Gaza, people suffer from hunger, thirst, pollution, shortage of medicines, electricity, and any means to get an income, not only by being bombed and shelled. Power crisis, gasoline shortage, water and food scarcity, sewage outflow and ever decreasing resources are disasters caused directly and indirectly by the siege.1 People in Gaza are resisting this aggression because they want a better and normal life and, even while crying in sorrow, pain, and terror, they reject a temporary truce that does not provide a real chance for a better future. A voice under the attacks in Gaza is that of Um Al Ramlawi who speaks for all in Gaza: “They are killing us all anyway—either a slow death by the siege, or a fast one by military attacks. We have nothing left to lose—we must fight for our rights, or die trying.”2 Gaza has been blockaded by sea and land since 2006. Any individual of Gaza, including fishermen venturing beyond 3 nautical miles of the coast of Gaza, face being shot by the Israeli Navy. No one from Gaza can leave from the only two checkpoints, Erez or Rafah, without special permission from the Israelis and the Egyptians, which is hard to come by for many, if not impossible. People in Gaza are unable to go abroad to study, work, visit families, or do business. Wounded and sick people cannot leave easily to get specialised treatment outside Gaza. Entries of food and medicines into Gaza have been restricted and many essential items for survival are prohibited.3 Before the present assault, medical stock items in Gaza were already at an all time low because of the blockade.3 They have run out now. Likewise, Gaza is unable to export its produce. Agriculture has been severely impaired by the imposition of a buffer zone, and agricultural products cannot be exported due to the blockade. 80% of Gaza's population is dependent on food rations from the UN. Much of Gaza's buildings and infrastructure had been destroyed during Operation Cast Lead, 2008—09, and building materials have been blockaded so that schools, homes, and institutions cannot be properly rebuilt. Factories destroyed by bombardment have rarely been rebuilt adding unemployment to destitution. Despite the difficult conditions, the people of Gaza and their political leaders have recently moved to resolve their conflicts “without arms and harm” through the process of reconciliation between factions, their leadership renouncing titles and positions, so that a unity government can be formed abolishing the divisive factional politics operating since 2007. This reconciliation, although accepted by many in the international community, was rejected by Israel. The present Israeli attacks stop this chance of political unity between Gaza and the West Bank and single out a part of the Palestinian society by destroying the lives of people of Gaza. Under the pretext of eliminating terrorism, Israel is trying to destroy the growing Palestinian unity. Among other lies, it is stated that civilians in Gaza are hostages of Hamas whereas the truth is that the Gaza Strip is sealed by the Israelis and Egyptians. Gaza has been bombed continuously for the past 14 days followed now by invasion on land by tanks and thousands of Israeli troops. More than 60 000 civilians from Northern Gaza were ordered to leave their homes. These internally displaced people have nowhere to go since Central and Southern Gaza are also subjected to heavy artillery bombardment. The whole of Gaza is under attack. The only shelters in Gaza are the schools of the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), uncertain shelters already targeted during Cast Lead, killing many. According to Gaza Ministry of Health and UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA),1 as of July 21, 149 of the 558 killed in Gaza and 1100 of the 3504 wounded are children. Those buried under the rubble are not counted yet. As we write, the BBC reports of the bombing of another hospital, hitting the intensive care unit and operating theatres, with deaths of patients and staff. There are now fears for the main hospital Al Shifa. Moreover, most people are psychologically traumatised in Gaza. Anyone older than 6 years has already lived through their third military assault by Israel. The massacre in Gaza spares no one, and includes the disabled and sick in hospitals, children playing on the beach or on the roof top, with a large majority of non-combatants. Hospitals, clinics, ambulances, mosques, schools, and press buildings have all been attacked, with thousands of private homes bombed, clearly directing fire to target whole families killing them within their homes, depriving families of their homes by chasing them out a few minutes before destruction. An entire area was destroyed on July 20, leaving thousands of displaced people homeless, beside wounding hundreds and killing at least 70—this is way beyond the purpose of finding tunnels. None of these are military objectives. These attacks aim to terrorise, wound the soul and the body of the people, and make their life impossible in the future, as well as also demolishing their homes and prohibiting the means to rebuild. Weaponry known to cause long-term damages on health of the whole population are used; particularly non fragmentation weaponry and hard-head bombs.4, 5 We witnessed targeted weaponry used indiscriminately and on children and we constantly see that so-called intelligent weapons fail to be precise, unless they are deliberately used to destroy innocent lives. We denounce the myth propagated by Israel that the aggression is done caring about saving civilian lives and children's wellbeing. Israel's behaviour has insulted our humanity, intelligence, and dignity as well as our professional ethics and efforts. Even those of us who want to go and help are unable to reach Gaza due to the blockade. This “defensive aggression” of unlimited duration, extent, and intensity must be stopped. Additionally, should the use of gas be further confirmed, this is unequivocally a war crime for which, before anything else, high sanctions will have to be taken immediately on Israel with cessation of any trade and collaborative agreements with Europe. As we write, other massacres and threats to the medical personnel in emergency services and denial of entry for international humanitarian convoys are reported.6 We as scientists and doctors cannot keep silent while this crime against humanity continues. We urge readers not to be silent too. Gaza trapped under siege, is being killed by one of the world's largest and most sophisticated modern military machines. The land is poisoned by weapon debris, with consequences for future generations. If those of us capable of speaking up fail to do so and take a stand against this war crime, we are also complicit in the destruction of the lives and homes of 1·8 million people in Gaza. We register with dismay that only 5% of our Israeli academic colleagues signed an appeal to their government to stop the military operation against Gaza. We are tempted to conclude that with the exception of this 5%, the rest of the Israeli academics are complicit in the massacre and destruction of Gaza. We also see the complicity of our countries in Europe and North America in this massacre and the impotence once again of the international institutions and organisations to stop this massacre. For the Open Letter to Israel Academics see http://haimbresheeth.com/gaza/an-open-letter-to-israel-academics-july-13th-2014 We declare no competing interests. Supplementary Material Supplementary appendix Open file PDF (62K) References 1 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Occupied Palestinian Territory: Gaza emergency situation report (as of 21 July 2014, 1500 hrs). http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_sitrep_22_07_2014.pdf. (accessed July 22, 2014). 2 Webb-Pullman J. Dignity or death—we cannot give up now. http://gaza.scoop.ps/2014/07/dignity-or-death-we-cannot-give-up-now/. (accessed July 22, 2014). 3 Gilbert M. Brief report to UNRWA: The Gaza Health Sector as of June 2014. http://www.unrwa.org/sites/default/files/final_report_-_gaza_health_sector_june-july_2014_-_mads_gilbert_2.pdf. (accessed July 22, 2014). 4 Naim A, Al Dalies H, El Balawi M, et al. Birth defects in Gaza: prevalence, types, familiarity and correlation with environmental factors. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012; 9: 1732-1747. PubMed 5 Manduca P, Naim A, Signoriello S. Specific association of teratogen and toxicant metals in hair of newborns with congenital birth defects or developmentally premature birth in a cohort of couples with documented parental exposure to military attacks: observational study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014; 11: 5208-5223. PubMed 6 Ma'an News Agency. 4 killed, over 50 injured as Israel targets al-Aqsa hospital. http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=715087. (accessed July 22, 2014). a New Weapons Research Group and University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy b James Lind Library, Oxford, UK c Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London, UK d Clinic of Emergency Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway e Barts and the Royal London Hospital, London, UK

  • GERMANY Bonn

    4

    Dr. Nabil AbdulKadir DEEB . GERMANY The General Assembly of the United Nations has recently adopted a resolution that defines Zionism as a form of racism. This fact has provoked a fierce debate in the Western world. Until that time you were in the western countries this problem did not go further on the ground. Virtually everywhere in the West is to realize that the Jews of Europe only a few decades, the victims of the barbaric racist ideology of National Socialism were. The Inferno has made the Jews the sympathy of the entire human race given. As an expression of sympathy have large areas of the Western public the Zionist movement, which claims to speak for the Jews, given their unconditional support. But few who expressed support for Zionism expresses had any detailed knowledge of its history, its ideology, its goals. The question is whether most people would have given their support to Zionism in the West, if they had been aware that this movement even though it claims to represent the victims of persecution in their ideology and truth which mimicked their methods of enforcement and the times even collaborated with them has towards common goals. This also applies to the Jewish and the general public opinion, because it is democracy, equality and humanity are among the best traditions of Western Jews in stark contrast to the ideology of Zionism. Even among the Jews themselves have only a few delves into the true nature of Zionism. The Western public is now faced by the question: Is Zionism racist actually, as the overwhelming majority of Member States has established the United Nations? If this were true, it would have the attitude of the West to be revised to Zionism. This investigation has led to the goal that the better argument on this issue on an informed basis, than the one based on which date Western attitudes towards Zionism. Dr. Nabil AbdulKadir DEEB . GERMANY Bonn

  • GERMANY Bonn

    12

    ألدكتور نبيل عبدالقادر ديب ألملحم حق تعويضات للاجئين الفلسطينيين عن الأضرار بموجب القانون الدولي العام ضد أي دوله معتديه أو ضد منتسبيها ألمعتديين ! د. نبيل عبدالقادر ديب ألملحم حق تعويضات للاجئين الفلسطينيين عن الأضرار بموجب القانون الدولي العام ضد أي دوله معتديه أو ضد منتسبيها ألمعتديين ! .. حاليا أن الوقت حان للأمم المتحدة كوصيا على مصالح اللاجئين ألفاسطينين ألمشردين في جميع دول ألعالم و صحاريها ألجائره وهو الاستنتاج الذي لا مفر منه ليس فقط القدرة على تقديم مطالبة دولية ضد لاجئ ليس له توليد بلد للاجئين . ولكن أيضا من واجب هذا الحرس هو UNO , WHO , UNHCR ألأمم المتحدة ومنظماتها ألدوليه كوصيا على مصالح اللاجئين الفلسطينين، الوقت للأمم المتحدة، وصيا على مصالح اللاجئين ألفلسطينين ألمشتتين . المبادئ الأساسية والتوجيهات من الحق في التعويض عن الأضرار بموجب القانون الدولي العام : يسمى التفسير من \" مبادئ القانون الدولي أو الإنصاف \" المصطلح في الفقرة 11 من قرار الأمم المتحدة 194 (II I)، 11 اعتمدت في كانون الأول عام 1948، وتستند في كثير من الأحيان للاجئين الفلسطينيين إلى مطالبات التعويض عن الأضرار بموجب القانون الدولي العام : ... تعويضات عن ممتلكات الذين يقررون عدم العودة إلى ديارهم وهي مسؤولة عن خسارة أو ضرر للممتلكات التي يجب أن تخضع لمبادئ القانون الدولي أو الإنصاف لصالح ألفلسطينين ألمشتتين. هذا التحليل ألقانوني ألعالمي ألدولي هو ضروريا ويرجع ذلك جزئيا إلى قرارات الجمعية العامة ليست ملزمة في حد ذاته. في حين أن معظم قرارات الجمعية العامة هي مجرد توصيات بموجب المادة 10 من ميثاق الأمم المتحدة، في ظل ظروف معينة يمكن أن تكون مقنعة والتكييف من القانون ألدولي ألعام الحالي أو إذا تكرر أكثر من مرة، \"يمكنك الحصول على تأثير مثل هذه المسؤولية من قبل تسارع العرف المولدة للعملية أو مباديء قانونيه لسقوط الحق. !!!! \" علما أن مناقشة القانون ألدولي ألعام هو من مسؤولية الدولة - وهو شرط أساسي للحصول على تعويض بموجب القانون الدولي العام - ونظرا لمعايير تحديد التعويض بما في ذلك ألمحاكم الأوروبية ومحاكم البلدان الأمريكية لحقوق الإنسان، وعدد آخر من التعويض سياقات غير تجارية. ... ألغايه والغرض من هذا ألمقال ليست منهجية \" تطبيق \" هذه المبادئ والخطوط التوجيهية لهذه القضية المحددة للاجئين الفلسطينيين بما فيهم فلسطينيو ألعراق و فلسطينيو قطاع غزه . نلاحظ أيضا أن معظم القانون الدولي ذات الصلة في الحصول على تعويضات مستمدة من مصادر قانونيه دوليه مثل قرارت ألمحاكم ألدوليه بين ايران - الولايات المتحدة محكمة المطالبات، لجنة التعويضات للامم المتحدة والتحكيم السابقة، خلافا للوضع اللاجئين الفلسطينيين في عدة نواحي . التفاوض في معظم الحالات عادة ما تنطوي على الشركات عبر الوطنية والاستثمار في الممتلكات، والعقود التجارية، مثل الامتيازات النفطية، أو في انتهاك لاتفاقات التجاريه الثنائية بين البلدين بدلا من عام لحقوق الإنسان أو الإنسانية، وكان هناك من الرعايا الأجانب من الدول القائمة، وعلى عكس المباني السكنية والتجارية في الغالب مملوكة من قبل الأسر والمجتمعات المحلية مع مثل هذا الوضع القانوني غير مؤكد كما للفلسطينيين في عام 1948. ومع ذلك فإن القانون العام للتعويضات على عدد من المعايير التي يمكن أن تستخدم كإطار لتسوية تفاوضية لتعويض اللاجئين الفلسطينيين في حالات القضية الفلسطينية. علما أن هناك قوانين دوليه معترف بها قانونيا عالميا وتطبق في جميع أنحاء ألعالم في جميع محاكم ألدول و قوانينها بما فيها ألمحكمه ألدوليه . المبدأ الأساسي لمسؤولية الدولة عن انتهاكات لغيرها من البلدان والناس , ومفهوم خطأ، والاستثناءات والقيود المفروضة على مسؤولية الدولة : إصابة رعايا الدول الثالثة والأشخاص عديمي الجنسية : ( سبيل ألمثال ألفلسطينيون ألمشتتون في جميع أنحاء ألعالم ) تقليديا: قد تم تطبيق القانون الدولي فقط على العلاقة بين ألدول في ألعالم . بالتالي إذا كان للدولة تسببت في أضرار لشخص خاصة من أجنبي ( سواء كان شخصا طبيعيا أو شركة ) وينطبق لذلك باعتباره انتهاكا لدولة أجنبية في أي جنسية غريبة ( أو حيث يتم دمج شركة ) . قد تكون الاصابة سياسة الوطنية لحقوق الإنسان يرى السلامة الشخصية ، وممتلكات أو مصالح أخرى . إذا كان للدولة على سبيل المثال مصادرة ممتلكات المستثمرين الأجانب في الدولة التي يكون للمستثمرين من مواطني هده ألدوله إمكانية المطالبة القانونيه و الحقوقيه ألدوليه بممارسة الدبلوماسية للأجنبي . .. \" الأزدواج \" : يجوز للدولة أن تأخذ شكل التفاوض والوساطة والتوفيق ( بما في ذلك من قبل لجنة التوفيق )، والتحكيم، قرار، الأمر الذي يتطلب موافقة كل من الدولة المدعى عليها ، أو، في ظل ظروف معينة وبما يتناسب مضادة من جانب واحد non forceful. الدولة المدعين بسيطرتها على المطالبة اعتنقها ، ويجوز ، في الواقع ، وبدون ذلك ، ودفع التعويضات المقدمة إلى الدولة، والذي تحول بعد ذلك وعادة ما حول المواطن المتضرر. ... أما ما يحدث في حالة الأشخاص عديمي الجنسية لاجئين أو أعضاء في الأمة التي لم يكن لديهم دولة خاصة بهم ؟ بشكل عام ما تركت حاله دون حماية دبلوماسية من هذا القبيل. ( وهذا هو سبب واحد أن القانون يفضل تجنب حالة انعدام الجنسية . ) في بعض الحالات مثل حالة من عمل تحدث في اسم من المقيمين بصفة دائمة أو غيرها من غير المواطنين الذين يشتركون معهم وجود صلة الإقليمية . أما في حالة اللاجئين ( عديم الجنسية أو لا ): أن \"الوقت للأمم المتحدة، وصيا على مصالح اللاجئين، هو الاستنتاج الذي لا مفر منه ليس فقط القدرة على تقديم مطالبة دولية ضد لاجئ ليس له توليد بلد للاجئين، ولكن أيضا من واجب هذا الحرس الذي هو UNO , WHO , UNHCR ألأمم المتحدة ومنظماتها ألدوليه كوصيا على مصالح اللاجئين، الوقت للأمم المتحدة، وصيا على مصالح اللاجئين ألفلسطينين ألمشتتين. يفرض أيضا التزامات حقوق الإنسان القانونية، وجميع الدول لحماية حقوق جميع الأشخاص سواء كانوا مواطنين أوأجانب أو عديمي الجنسية. (ومع ذلك، وتقتصر على الاستعمال الفعلي لآليات دولية للانتصاف بموجب المعايير الدولية لحقوق الإنسان في تطبيقها وفي نطاقها خلال المحاكم الإقليمية لحقوق الإنسان . خطأ والدفاعات : .., ثمة مسألة ذات صلة هو ما إذا كان القانون الدولي يتطلب أن إقامة دولة ليكون اللوم وبالتالي التعويض عن الانتهاكات. وبعبارة أخرى، كل ما هو \" غير قانوني \" السلوك الدولي لوم جديرا ؟ وفقا لالرائدة المحاميه إيان براونلي، والمحاكم الدولية وعادة ما تتبع نظرية مسؤولية الهدف، شريطة أن يمكن أن تنتج وكالة والسببية ( \" الإسناد \" ) كان هناك خرق للقانون الدولي من جانب النتيجة وحدها. وحتى إذا كان وكلاء الدولة لديها أيضا سلطتهم ( المتجاوز لحدود السلطة ) تصرف، أو، لهذه المسألة، إلى إلحاق الضرر في حالة عدم وجود نية ( dolo malus) أو وجود حسن النية ، وأن ألدوله ستكون مسؤولة عن ربما كل ما قدمته من أعمال، والتي تتوافق مع فشل. بالطبع قد يكون الدافع والنية ذات الصلة عندما تدعي الدولة أن هناك ما يبرر عملها من قبل المشروعية ظرف استبعاد المشروعة. مشروع النظام لجنة القانون الدولي من إجراءات تأسيس دفاعات المحتملة التالية: الموافقة المضادة ( التي قد تكون مشروعة إذا وتلتزم الدولة المتضررة إلى فعل غير مشروع دوليا )، والقوة القاهرة والحادث الفجائي ، الدفاع عن النفس ، ضرورة، والضرورة. الماضيين ولعل أهم الأنظمة الدفاعية . ألقانون ألدولي هو السبيل الوحيد لحماية مصلحة حكومية مهمة ضد فترة خطيرة وشيكة بجريمة ليست خطيرة والاهتمام الكبير من الدولة نحو أ لألتزام فيها. حتى لو يتم استيفاء هذه الشروط ، لا يتم استبعاد شرعية، إذا تم إنشاء التزام دولي الناشيء عن قاعدة آمر من قواعد القانون الدولي العام أو التزام بموجب عقد يتضمن حالة دفاع الضرورة أو ساهم في الدولة المعنية عن وقوع حالة الضرورة. شكل والمعايير للتعويض حسب قواعد القانون الدولي العام : الإقليمية لمحكمة حقوق الإنسان : المحاكم الأوروبية والبلدان الأمريكية لحقوق الإنسان لأجل منح تعويضات لضحايا بانتظام الفرد المتضرر من انتهاكات حقوق الإنسان. أن الاستيلاء على الممتلكات من أجل المصلحة العامة دون تعويض لا يمكن تبريره إلا في حالات استثنائية. تم العثور على توازن عادل بين متطلبات المصلحة العامة للمجتمع وحماية حقوق الفرد الأساسية. وينبغي ألا تفرض عبئا غير متناسب وليس على الفرد . .... الحالات للمتضررين في ألتعويض في حالات ألحروب بين ألدول : ... في وقت مبكر في نهاية القرن الثامن عشر جعلت حقوق القانون الدولي العرفي من تعويضات للأفراد في ألحرب ضد ألدوله ألمعتديه و حكامها المعتديين. ... قامت لجان دوليه الحفاظ على منح تعويضات للناجين من المدنيين المتضررين في الحرب العالمية الثانية ودمرت ممتلكاتهم ان كانوا ألماني ألجنسيه أو غير ألماني ألجنسيه . ... أيضا ألمحكمة الجنائية الدولية ليوغوسلافيا السابقة تنص على أنه بعد حكم الإدانة، يجوز للدائرة الابتدائية للمحكمه ألدوليه أن تعقد جلسة خاصة للتحديد صالحة العائد للممتلكات، و أن الأحكام الصادرة عن المحكمة ألدوليه بشأن المسؤولية الجنائية للمدان أن تكون موجودة نهائيا وملزما في ما يتعلق مطالبات التعويض عن الضحايا في المحاكم الوطنية أو غيرها من نماذج أخرى . المصادر ألقانونيه الدوليه و ألعالميه وتفسير ألقوانين ألدوليه العلميه : - جميع المصادر ألقانونيه الدوليه و ألعالميه وتفسير ألقوانين ألدوليه العلميه بعدة لغات عالميه حيه موجوده معي الدكتور نبيل عبد ألقادر ديب. ألدكتور نبيل عبدالقادر ديب ألملحم باحث طب علمي أخصائي في ألمانيا من فلسطينيو ألعراق مقيم في ألمانيا يون doctor.nabilabdulkadirdeeb@googlemail.com

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