1. Summary .............................................................................................. 4
2. Introduction .......................................................................................... 5
2.1. Background .............................................................................. 6
2.1.1. The number of Palestinians in Iraq .......................................... 6
2.1.2 Legal Status .............................................................................. 6
2.1.3 The situation of the Palestinians in Iraq ................................... 8
2.2. Documentation ....................................................................... 11
2.2.1 Identity cards ............................................................................. 11
2.2.2 Travel documents ................................................................. 12
3. Resident Permits ................................................................................ 13
4. Palestinians returning to Iraq; Entry/exit procedures ......................... 13
5. Conclusion ......................................................................................... 15
6. Consulted Sources .............................................................................. 17
5.1 Oral sources .................................................................................. 17
5.2 Written Sources ............................................................................ 17
7. Abbreviations ..................................................................................... 18
Denna rapport är skriven i enlighet med EU:s allmänna riktlinjer för framtagande av landinformation (2008). Den är sammanställd utifrån noggrant utvalda och allmänt tillgängliga informationskällor. Alla använda källor refereras. All information som presenteras, med undantag av obestridda/uppenbara fakta, har dubbelkontrollerats om inget annat anges.
Informationen har noggrant granskats, utvärderats och bearbetats under en begränsad tid.
Sammanställningen gör inte anspråk på att vara uttömmande och bör inte tillmätas exklusivt bevisvärde i samband med avgörandet av ett enskilt ärende.
Om en specifik händelse, person eller organisation inte nämns i rapporten innebär inte detta att händelsen inte har ägt rum, eller att personen eller organisationen inte existerar.
Informationen i rapporten återspeglar inte nödvändigtvis Migrationsverkets officiella ståndpunkt i en viss fråga och det finns ingen avsikt att genom rapporten göra politiska ställningstaganden.
Lifos Palestinians in Iraq
Migrationsverket & Landinfo 2014-03-07 4 (18)
Palestinians in Iraq were never formally recognized as refugees. However
subsequent to a number of key resolutions undertaken by the Arab League
as well as the 1965 Casablanca Protocol -Protocol for the Treatment of
Palestinians in Arab States- the group was granted a number of rights and
services by the Baath regime. Although there has been no change in the
entitlements granted by the previous regime the situation for the Palestinian
community changed drastically in 2003 when Saddam was ousted from
power. Hundreds of Palestinian were targeted by armed militias and other
groups who sought revenge against the perceived preferential treatment the group received by the former regime.
The wave of sectarian violence that swept the country in 2006-2007, coupled with the attacks carried out against the Palestinian community at the time, prompted thousands of Palestinians to flee the country. Their numbers have decreased considerably since then. Reportedly, between 10 000 to 15 000 Palestinians are said to remain in Iraq today.
Although the situation of the Palestinians in Iraq has improved since 2007
many still feel insecure as a result of their experience during the sectarian
violence. The deteriorating political and security situation now facing the
country has also raised concerns of new provocations and reprisals amongst members of the Palestinian community. The general sentiment that the community received preferential treatment from the previous regime still prevails. As a result, Palestinians continue to face discrimination and harassment because of their nationality.
New identity cards were issued to Palestinians in 2008. Palestinians who
arrived to Iraq in 1948 and their descendants are also entitled to Iraqi travel
documents for Palestinians.
Palestinians wishing to leave the country are required to obtain an exit permit from the Directorate of Residency Affairs/Department of Arab Affairs (DRA/DAA) within the Ministry of Interior (MoI). The permit allows Palestinians to reside outside the country for three months.
Palestinians who exceed the time limit can re-enter the country after approval from the DRA/DAA provided they have a valid Iraqi travel document or a valid Palestinian passport issued by the Palestinian Authority.
Upon approval the Iraqi embassy can issue an entry visa. Palestinians who
left the country illegally may also be granted re-entry by the DRA/DAA.
Other than submitting a valid travel document or passport they are also
requested to verify that they were formerly residing in Iraq.
Lifos Palestinians in Iraq
Migrationsverket & Landinfo 2014-03-07 5 (18)
This report addresses the current situation of Palestinians residing in Iraq.
The report further examines issues concerning documentation issued to
Palestinians by the Iraqi authorities as well as entry and exit procedures
pertaining to the group´s right to travel from and to Iraq.
The report mainly deals with information compiled following a joint fact finding mission on November 16th to 21st 2013, to Baghdad and Erbil undertaken by the Swedish Migration Board´s country of origin information
unit, Lifos, and the Norwegian Country of Origin Information Centre, Landinfo, at the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration. Further information
was acquired through email correspondence as well as telephone interviews conducted with officials within the Ministry of Interior (MoI).
Lifos Palestinians in Iraq
Migrationsverket & Landinfo 2014-03-07 6 (18)
2.1.1. The number of Palestinians in Iraq
The Palestinian population in Iraq had numbered approximately 35 000 before the overthrow of the Baathist-regime in 2003.1 Today their numbers
have dwindled to about 10 000 to 15 0002. UNHCR in Bagdad estimates
that there are about 9000 Palestinians living in Baghdad alone3. The overall majority reside in the districts of al-Baladiyat and Zafarania. Smaller
numbers are located near Mosul, approximately 1000 persons, as well as
Basra, around 100 persons, and the Kurdish region which hosts a few individuals in Sulaimaniya.4 UNHCR recently completed a survey on the
Palestinians. The survey is due to be finalised in the coming months5.
2.1.2 Legal Status
The Palestinians that settled in Iraq came in three successive waves. The
first wave which originated from Haifa and Jaffa came to Iraq in 1948. This
group fled first to Jenin following attacks carried out on their villages. In Jenin they met up with the Iraqi army that was stationed in the area at the
time. Women and children were evacuated by the Iraqi army to Iraq in 1948.
The men were incorporated into a special unit within the Iraqi army known
as the “Carmel Brigades”. The brigade, having numbered 4000 at the time,
entered Iraq in 1949 following the Iraqi army´s withdrawal from Jenin. The second wave came to Iraq after 1967 following the occupation of the West
Bank and Gaza Strip. The third influx of Palestinians entered Iraq in the aftermath of the Gulf War when most Palestinians were expelled from Kuwait.
According to representatives at the Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad Palestinians residing in the Iraq today are either refugees from 1948 or 1967. Palestinians who came from Kuwait following the Gulf War in 1991
have all left the country. The majority originated from Gaza and Lebanon.6
Lifos Palestinians in Iraq
Migrationsverket & Landinfo 2014-03-07 7 (18)
The Palestinian refugees in Iraq were never formally recognized as refugees by the Iraqi government. However, they were given protection in
accordance to key resolutions undertaken by the Arab League as well as the 1965 Casablanca Protocol, Protocol for the Treatment of Palestinians in
Arab States 7.
Palestinians were granted a five year residency permit as well as travel documents. However, as is the case with most Arab countries hosting Palestinian refugees, and in accordance with the Casablanca Protocol, they were not granted Iraqi citizenship and consequently did not qualify for Iraqi national passports.
Palestinians residing in Iraq do not fall under the jurisdiction of the United
Nations Relief and Work Agency, UNRWA. Iraq refused to allow UNWRA
the permission to operate on their territory when the organization was established in 1949 8. Palestinians living in Iraq fall under the mandate of the UNHCR as the organization covers Palestinian refugees outside UNWRA´s area of operations. 9
UNHCR considers two groups of Palestinian refugees to fall under the scope of Article 1d of the 1951 convention:
“(i) Palestinians who are “Palestine refugees” within the sense of UN General Assembly Resolution 194 (III) of 11 December 1948 and other UN General Assembly Resolutions, who were displaced from that part of Palestine which became Israel, and who have been unable to return there.
(ii) Palestinians who are “displaced persons” within the sense of UN General Assembly Resolution 2252 (ES-V) of 4 June 1967 and subsequent
UN General Assembly Resolutions, and who have been unable to return to
the Palestinian territories occupied by Israel since 1967.”10
UNHCR also provides assistance to Palestinians who do not fall under the
above mentioned criteria but who are outside the Palestinian territories and
who may have a well-founded fear of persecution in accordance to the 1951 convention grounds. Such refugees can qualify as refugees under the Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention.
The Revolutionary Command Council decision of 12 September 2001, Decree 202, stipulates that Palestinians who have residency in Iraq are to be ‘treated as Iraqi citizens in rights and duties’, with the exception of the right to acquire Iraqi nationality11, property or land12.
Palestinians were granted a number of rights and social services in Iraq,
including the right to work, as well as access to health care and education.
They were also provided with government-owned housing free of charge, at
the al-Balidiyat residence complex in Baghdad, or fixed subsidized rent in
privately owned dwellings.
There have been no significant changes in the rights and entitlements of the Palestinian population prior to the fall of the Baath regime. With the new
identity cards issued by the MoI in 2008, Palestinians continue to have access to public schools and health service as well as food rations in accordance to the food distribution system (PDS). They are also able to rent property. Palestinians are in principle allowed to seek employment within the public as well as the private sector. However, the rise in unemployment in Iraq has adversely affected the Palestinian community to an even greater extent than the rest of the Iraqi population.
2.1.3 The situation of the Palestinians in Iraq
The situation of the Palestinian community changed drastically after the fall
of the Baath regime in 2003. This was mainly triggered by the public sentiment that perceived the Palestinian community as supporters to the
former regime because of the benefits they received during the Saddam era.
As a result, Palestinians were subjected to harassment, targeted attacks,
kidnappings as well as extra-judicial killings which were predominately carried out by Shi´a militias. Hundreds of Palestinian families were also forcibly evicted from government and privately owned housing by groups of
armed militia as well as landlords who had received minimal rent from the
government and who no longer felt obliged to grant subsidized housing.
The impact of the sectarian violence on the Palestinian community at the
time prompted thousands to flee the country. About 300 Palestinians were
killed at the time13. The population of al-Balidiyat decreased from 8 000 to
4 000 individuals.14
According to the UNHCR some of the families who fled to Syria during the
sectarian violence have opted to return to Iraq. UNHCR received 10 families from Syria15.
The al-Waleed camp on the border between Iraq and Syria hosted around120 fleeing Iraqi Palestinians. Although the camp is formerly closed
some 60 Palestinians are said to remain at the border area today16.
Although the general security situation for Palestinian refugees has improved since 2007 many Palestinians continue to feel insecure by the
experience of threats and violence they endured in the aftermath of the post Saddam era. UNHCR reported in 2012 that the unstable political and
security climate in the country also raises concerns of new provocations
amongst members of the Palestinian community.17
UNHCR`s representative in Bagdad Dr. Claire Borgeois, stated in her meeting with the delegation in November 2013 that Palestinians are not
directly subjected to any imminent threats or risks which would single them
out from any other minority group. However, the general sentiment that Palestinians received preferential treatment during the Saddam regime still
While the legal rights outlined by the previous regime still exist, many Palestinians are finding it difficult accessing or enjoying these rights. For
example, it has been reported that Palestinians working within the public as
well as the private sector have had their employment terminated because
they did not hold Iraqi nationality18.
The Institution for International Law and Human Rights (IILHR) states in its report Iraq´s Minorities and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation and Human Rights that the humanitarian situation continues to be a challenge for the Palestinian community in the country. Families living in al-Balidiyat district face overcrowding. Reportedly at least 4000 persons live in the 16 apartment complex free of rent where three to four families may occupy a single apartment. Several thousand live in the
surrounding area. Water, electricity and other services are limited. The situation is reported to be the same for the Palestinian population in Mosul.19
Representatives at the Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad the delegation spoke to in November 2013 maintained that Palestinians want to leave Iraq
because of the bad treatment they are receiving in the country. Many continue to face discrimination and arbitrary arrests because of their nationality and connected suspicions of terrorist activity. Those leaving the
country travel to Turkey and Tunisia but have Europe and Australia as their
One embassy representative informed the delegation that although he is
born in Baghdad and upholds diplomatic status he faces problems at the
checkpoints because he is Palestinian. His daughter´s application to study
pharmacy was rejected because of her nationality. She had to accept a seat at
the technical college instead.20
In its Aide Memoire of July 2012 concerning the situation of Palestinian Refugees in Iraq the UNHCR reported that there has been no incidents that
would suggest the Palestinians children were being denied access to education. However, there have been individual reports of harassment, negative attitudes and stereotyping undertaken by some teachers towards
There are currently 60 Palestinians in detention in Iraq. One of them has
been sentenced to death due to terror activities.
The representatives at the Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad took up the case of a Palestinian who approached the embassy and informed that he had been arrested and tortured by the Iraqi authorities in June 2013 as a result of mistaken identity - he had the same name as a terrorist suspect. Although the authorities became aware of the mistaken identity the man was forced to pay 1000 USD for his release. A similar incident was reported involving two Palestinians who were taken by soldiers from a farm they were living at. Both were mistreated and had to pay to be released.
Another Palestinian is currently in detention suspected of terrorist activities
after being arrested on the street in November 2013. The authorities have
threatened to charge him with terrorist activities if he does not pay 7000
2.2.1 Identity cards
The Ministry of Interior (MoI) started to issue new identity cards for Palestinians refugees in January 2008. Identity cards issued to Palestinians
vary in colour depending on the refugee group they belong to.
Palestinian refugees from 1948 are issued red Identity cards (that is identity cards with a red-coloured strip). Palestinians refugees who arrived to Iraq in 1967 and thereafter are issued yellow identity cards (that is identity cards with a yellow-coloured strip).23
All identity cards are valid for three years. The document is issued by the
Permanent Committee for Refugee Affairs (PCRA) – al-Lajnah al-Da´imal
´Shoun al-Laje´en- within the MoI24.
Each individual is issued a separate document. This is also applied for underage children.25
When applying for an identity card the applicant is required to submit a certificate of residency- ta´ed sakan. According to an official in PCRA the
certificate of residency is not to be confused with the housing card issued to Iraqis. The certificate serves as verification for the person´s ongoing residency, i.e. that he/she upholds a place of residence in the country. The
certificate is issued upon request by the local area representative- Mukhtar.
The PCRA also requires verification of status for Palestinian refugees from
1948 which it submits in a request to the Ministry of Migration and Displacement (MoMD). This procedure is specific for the refugee group from 1948 because it is the only group of Palestinians the MoMD holds records of. Once obtained, the information is forwarded in a letter to PCRA. Refugees from 1967 and other Palestinians are not required to verify their status.
A Palestinian can apply for an identity card through proxy. In case the person is outside the country the proxy is drafted by the designated Iraqi
embassy or diplomatic mission abroad. The proxy can only be given to a
family member. Once the proxy is obtained the PCRA will issue a new document in accordance with the prevailing procedures26.
The PCRA also renews expired and lost identity cards. In the cases pertaining to loss of document the applicant is also requested to submit a
statement from the police station or a judge confirming the loss of the document 27.
2.2.2 Travel documents
Only Palestinian refugees adhering to the refugee group of 1948 are entitled to Iraqi travel documents, pursuant to Law No. 26 of 1961 Travel
Documents for Palestinians; and General Passport Law No.55/1959 (still in
force), as well as the Law No. 65 of 1983. Travel documents are issued by
Other Palestinians nationals can obtain passports issued by the Palestinian
The travel documents are valid for five years but have to be renewed every
year. The renewal is registered in the document. After five years the holder
is required to apply for a new document. 30
Palestinians wishing to apply for a travel document have to present their
identity card, ration card, certificate of residency- ta´ed sakan, as well as a
supporting letter from both the PCRA and the Palestinian Embassy31. The
documents are then submitted with the application form.
Children under the age of 14 are included in their father´s travel document.
Children aged 14 and above receive separate documents.32 According to
UNHCR, the authorities are considering issuing separate travel documents
for all underage children33.
Reportedly, Iraqi embassies and diplomatic missions abroad do not issue
travel documents to Palestinians refugees from Iraq. Travel documents can
only be obtained through the DRA/DAA34 .
When a Palestinian outside Iraq requests to have his/her travel document
extended, renewed or updated to include additional family members the Iraqi embassy or diplomatic missions have to contact the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA). The embassy is also requested to submit the following information pertaining to the document holder;
Number of the travel document
Date of issue
Place of issuance
Name of holder
Names of persons accompanying the document holder
The embassy is thereafter required to comply with the instructions from the
MoFA`s Consular Department, and the DRA/DAA35.
Palestinians outside Iraq can authorize a representative, by proxy, certified
by the Iraqi Embassy to apply for a travel document on their behalf. The
proxy is submitted through the MoFA´s Consular Department. The authorized representative can submit the application at the DRA/DAA. The
representative is also required to submit a copy of the proxy as well as a
copy of the applicant´s travel document along with the application.36
3. Resident Permits
Resident permits issued to Palestinians in Iraq are valid for one year. The
permits are issued and renewed at the DRA/DAA.
All Palestinians wishing to apply for a resident permit have to verify both
their identity as well as their status. Verification of identity is confirmed through submission of the identity card for Palestinians. Verification of status is done by obtaining a letter from the Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad as well as a statement from the PCRA. In addition, the applicant is also requested to submit a certificate of residency- ta´ed sakan -in order to confirm that he/she is residing in the country.37
4. Palestinians returning to Iraq: Entry/exit
All Palestinians residing in Iraq are requested to obtain approval from the
MoI prior to their departure from the country38. The DRA/DAA is in charge
of issuing exit permits for Palestinians wishing to travel abroad. The exit
permit allows Palestinian to reside outside the country for a period of three
months. In some cases the applicant may have to give a reason for requesting an exit permit. 39
There are also cases where a person may stay longer abroad, for example for studies. A representative from the Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad the
delegation spoke to mentioned that his son who is currently studying in the
Ukraine receives an entry visa upon arrival each time he visits Iraq. The
representative also added that his son did not face any difficulties obtaining
the visa since he is born in Iraq. 40
Exit permits are issued after consent from the PCRA. In order to obtain the
PCRA´s consent the applicant must first submit his/her identity card to the
Committee. The identity card is returned upon re-entry to the country.
Upon receiving the identity document the PCRA gives its consent which is
drafted in a letter to the DRA/DAA instructing the designated authority to
issue the permit. The permit, a blue-coloured sticker, is then added to the
applicant´s travel document (1948 refugee) or Palestinian passport issued by the Palestinian Authority (1967 refugees and other Palestinians).
The permit is valid for 10 days during which the applicant may leave the country. Those who do not leave the country within that period have to pay
a fine and apply for a new permit. In some cases the permit is renewed without any charge. It depends on the circumstances.41
Palestinians who have exceeded their sojourn abroad have to apply for a
new permit. The application can be submitted either through the Iraqi embassy or through proxy.
The DRA/DAA must first request clearance from the security department
within the DRA before a new exit permit can be issued. The security department does a security check on the applicant´s background. Once approved the DRA/DAA gives instructions to the designated embassy as
well as all entry ports allowing the applicant to return. The Embassy also
receives a copy of the approval upon which it issues an entry permit (visa)
that is subsequently stamped in the applicant´s travel document or Palestinian passport.42
It takes about 10 days to issue an approval. The entry permit is valid for
three months during which the applicant can return to Iraq. The applicant
must also pay a fine, either at the Iraqi embassy or the diplomatic mission
abroad issuing the visa, in this case the applicant pays 40 USD or at the port of entry upon arrival to Iraq, in which case the fine is 80 USD43.
The applicant has to have a valid travel document or passport issued by the Palestinian Authority before he/she can apply for a new entry permit.
Palestinians who left Iraq illegally can also be granted an entry permit.
However, they must first verify that they are registered in Iraq and that they
were earlier residents in the country. This can be verified through a letter
from the PCRA as well as the MoMD and also the Palestinian Embassy in
Baghdad. Palestinians who are born in Iraq can also be granted re-entry if
they can verify that they are born in the country. Thereafter the applications
are processed in the same manner as those with expired exit permits. 44
Migration officials at Baghdad International Airport the delegation spoke to
informed that they have not received any case of Palestinian returnees.45
UNHCR has expressed concerns over the situation of Palestinian returnees
to Iraq46. In its Aide Memoire of July 2012 concerning the situation of Palestinian Refugees in Iraq the organisation stated that Palestinian returnees are more vulnerable than others. Given their diminishing numbers in the country Palestinian returnees tend to become more susceptible to threats and violence. Those who were evicted from their homes when they fled the country are also liable to become internally displaced upon return to Iraq. The deteriorating security situation is also likely to further expose the group´ s vulnerability.
UNHCR reiterates in its report that Palestinians returning to Baghdad after
years in exile are most likely to be perceived as outsiders and therefore may be at risk of being targeted in comparison to those Palestinians who
remained in Baghdad. In addition, the Palestinian community is severely
weakened and marginalized and is therefore not likely to provide adequate
protection and support for returnees in the current security climate in Iraq.
Returnees may also find it difficult to relocate to other parts of the country
as there are no alternative Palestinian communities that can host them.47
The Palestinians population in Iraq has declined considerably following the
fall of the Baath regime in 2003. The political developments and the deteriorating security situation facing the country this past decade seem to
be the main contributing elements to the continuant exodus of the population.
The general security situation for Palestinians in Iraq has improved since
2007. There are no indications that would suggest that the Palestinian population is facing any direct threats that would single them out from any
other minority group. However, as is the case with vulnerable groups living
in Iraq today members of the Palestinian community feel marginalized by
the escalating sectarian tension. The violations and attacks carried out against the population during the sectarian violence have left the Palestinian community insecure as well as susceptible to new reprisals. The fact that certain segments of Iraqi society still regard Palestinians as supporters of the
Saddam era further contributes to their vulnerability.
The Palestinian population´s diminishing number in Iraq is also having an
impact on the community´s ability to provide support and protection for those left in the country, but even for those returning to Iraq after years in
exile. Palestinians can formerly return to Iraq regardless of their duration
abroad and irrespective of whether they left the country legally or illegally.
However, there is no evidence of any Palestinians having returned through
Baghdad International Airport after having their asylum application rejected
6. Consulted Sources
5.1 Oral sources
2. Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad
3. Directorate of Residency/Department of Arab Affairs, Ministry of
4. Permanent Committee for Refugee Affairs, Ministry of Interior
5. Migration Authorities at Baghdad International Airport
5.2 Written Sources
1. Email correspondence with UNHCR
2. Email Correspondence with Ministry of Migration and Displacement
3. Jadaliyya, An ongoing Nakba; the Plight of Palestinian refugees in
Iraq, 2012-02-06, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/4264/anongoing-
nakba_the-plight-of-palestinian-refugee, [ latest
4. UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection
Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq, July 2012,
http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf [ latest downloaded
5. Institute for International Law and human Rights, Iraq´s Minorities
and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation
and Human Rights, May 2013,
[latest downloaded 2014-03-06]
6. League of Arab States, Protocol for the Treatment of Palestinians in
Arab States ("Casablanca Protocol"), 11 September 1965,
texis/vtx/rwmain?docid=460a2b252, [ latest downloaded 2014-
7. UNRWA, The United Nations and Palestinian Refugees,
http://www.unrwa.org/userfiles/2010011791015.pdf, [ latest
MoI Ministry of Interior
DRA/DAA Department of Residency Affairs/Department of Arab Affairs
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Work Agency for Palestinian
Refugees in the Near East
PCRA Permanent Committee for Refugee Affairs
MoMD Ministry of Migration and Displacement
MoFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1 Jadaliyya, An ongoing Nakba; the Plight of Palestinian refugees in Iraq,2012-02-06, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/4264/an-ongoing-nakba_the-plight-of-palestinianrefugee, Institute for International Law and human Rights, Iraq´s Minorities and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation and Human Rights, May 2013, http://lawandhumanrights.org/documents/MinorityHB_EN.pdf
2 UNHCR 2013-11-17, Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad 2013-11-17, The Institute for International Law and Human Rights , Iraq´s Minorities and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation and Human Rights, May 2013, http://lawandhumanrights.org/documents/MinorityHB_EN.pdf
3 UNHCR 2013-11-17
4 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq, July 2012 http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf Institute for International Law and human Rights, Iraq´s Minorities and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation and Human Rights, May 2013, http://lawandhumanrights.org/documents/MinorityHB_EN.pdf
5 UNHCR 2012-11-17
6 Palestinian Embassy in Baghdad 2013-11-17
7 League of Arab States, Protocol for the Treatment of Palestinians in Arab States ("Casablanca Protocol"), 11 September 1965, http://www.refworld.org/cgibin/texis/vtx/rwmain?docid=460a2b252
8 Jadaliyya, An ongoing Nakba; the Plight of Palestinian refugees in Iraq,2012-02-06, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/4264/an-ongoing-nakba_the-plight-of-palestinianrefugee
9 UNRWA, The United Nations and Palestinian Refugees, http://www.unrwa.org/userfiles/2010011791015.pdf
11 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf
12Jadaliyya, An ongoing Nakba; the Plight of Palestinian refugees in Iraq,2012-02-06, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/4264/an-ongoing-nakba_the-plight-of-palestinianrefugee
13 Palestinian Embassy in Bagdad 2013-11-17
14 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf
15 UNHCR 2013-11-17
17 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq, July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf
18 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf
Jadaliyya, An ongoing Nakba; the Plight of Palestinian refugees in Iraq,2012-02-06, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/4264/an-ongoing-nakba_the-plight-of-palestinianrefugee
19 Institute for International Law and human Rights, Iraq´s Minorities and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation and Human Rights, May 2013, http://lawandhumanrights.org/documents/MinorityHB_EN.pdf
20 Palestinian Embassy 2013-11-17
21 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf
22 Palestinian Embassy 2013-11-17
23 PCRA, 2014-02-02, Email correspondence MoMD 2014-01-22
24 PCRA, 2014-02-02
25 Email correspondence UNHCR 2013-11-29
26 PCRA 2014-02-02
27 Email MoMD 2014-01-22, PCRA 2014-02-02.
28 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf,
29 PCRA 2014-02-02
30 DRA/DAA 2014-02-02
31 Email MoMD 2014-01-22, Telephone interview 2014-02-02
32 DRA/DAA, 2014-02-02
33 Email UNHCR 2013-11-29
34 Institute for International Law and human Rights, Iraq´s Minorities and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation and Human Rights, May 2013, http://lawandhumanrights.org/documents/MinorityHB_EN.pdf
35 Institute for International Law and human Rights, Iraq´s Minorities and Other Vulnerable Groups: Legal framework, Documentation and Human Rights, May 2013, http://lawandhumanrights.org/documents/MinorityHB_EN.pdf
36 DRA/DAA, 2014-02-02
37 DRA/DAA, 2014-02-02, PCRA 2014-02-02
38 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq, July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf
39 DRA/DAA 2014-02-02
40 Palestinian Embassy, 2013-11-17
41 DRA/DAA 2014-02-02
42 DRA/DAA 2014-02-02
45 BIAP 2013-11-19
46 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq, July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf
47 UNHCR, Update of UNHCR Aide Memoire 2006 Protection Considerations for the Palestinian Refugees in Iraq, July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/500ebeea2.pdf